One of the more interesting recent Internet parlor games is called Occupy Facebook With Art. By registering a 'like' to a lead post, you are assigned an artist and must then share an image or video of artwork by that artist on your Timeline, along with some variation of the statement "The idea is to occupy Facebook with ART, breaking the monotony of photos of lunch, sushi and sports. Whoever likes this post will receive an artist and has to publish a piece by that artist with this text.”
Seems like a harmless enough diversion, right? A quick way of adding a little beauty and/or thought-provoking visual somethingness to a friend's day. But it wasn't long before haters starting hating. The criticisms I saw ranged from claims that participants were either snobbing up Facebook (seeing as how it is the rightful repository of cat-memes and stories about Miley Kardashian); showing favoritism to certain artists while denigrating others; or disrespecting artists and their works by reducing them to meme-bait and sharing them on a social media site.
I didn't participate in the game, not because I thought it was disrespectful or a time waste or was engrossed in reading about Miley Kardashian, but because I didn't have time for the follow-through. My nature dictates that I'm in for all-or nothing, so I knew I'd end up spending my waking hours scouring the Interwebs for artists and works to further this challenge. Best not to jump down that rabbit hole, I thought, so I was content to look at pictures I didn't dare comment on lest I get sucked into a meme-vortex.
But I have to admit that some of the complaints irked me, for they smacked of high culture snobbery and elitism which do art lovers no favors. I don't get how social media-sharing of art dumbs it down; I have more respect for the staying power of art than to believe that is even possible. I suppose those who believe that art is Srs Bsns! might take offense at the thought that it could be enjoyed by the Great Unwashed on their cell phones. But it's hard to take people seriously who believe this, for they're likely the types who feel the need to make themselves look superior by claiming cultural cachet, and who use their "expert knowledge" as an intimidation tactic to achieve a sense of authority.
Try as I might (and I do try very hard to be fair and see all sides to an argument), I can't fathom how sharing an image of an artist's work, properly attributed, is reductionistic and disrespectful to said artist or work. To criticize this game harkens back to a time when the only people who were patrons of art were the elite, the upper strata of society, the 1% in today's vernacular -- and they wanted to keep it that way. It was considered laughable and futile to promote culture to a wider public than the educated bourgeoisie to whom it was naturally supposed to belong. Their privilege reinforced their sense of superiority (and vice versa). The fact that the experience of a work of art is as singular and unique as the person experiencing it didn't signify, because the prevailing idea was that the hoi polloi couldn't possibly be intellectually or emotionally equipped to understand art in all its complexity.
The "common" people really haven't had much of a chance to appreciate art through the ages. Prior to the 19th century works of art were not created to be viewed in museums; they were designed for specific patrons to display in private homes and in esteemed public places. Museums mostly started out as private collections belonging to the wealthiest members of society. Objects were displayed at their owners' whims in what were called 'wonder rooms' or 'cabinets of curiousities' that lumped together works of art with specimens from the natural world. Social status still ruled, for one generally had to be of a certain accepted level of Respectability to gain access.
I think that Phineas.T. Barnum ought to be credited with adding a populist aspect to museum-going. With his unerring instinct for showmanship, Barnum purchased an existing collection of natural objects from Scudder's American Museum and the diverse collection of similar botanical, biological and archaeological specimens belonging to American painter Charles Willson Peale's failed museum in Philadelphia. To these artifacts Barnum added freakish curiosities, animals and live acts to draw people in who might not otherwise be attracted to scholarly collections.
|PT. Barnum's crew, circa 1860. Mathew Brady Studio.|
I'll grant you that "freakish' is a harsh descriptor but we're talking about exhibits like Mother Carey's Trained Chickens, a fake taxidermied mermaid, an "industrious" flea circus, and a loom run by a dog. The animal world was represented with myriad species and there was an ever-revolving population of "human oddities" to serve as living attractions: serpent charmers; phrenologists and fortune tellers; ropedancers; jugglers and acrobats; a Bearded Lady and an Albino Lady and a succession of Fat Women and Men and Children; a giant and giantess couple; and of course General Tom Thumb. On the tamer side, patrons could also view the original Scudder taxidermy collection, a camera obscura, and a scale model of the city of Paris. Barnum described his museum as "...a vast National Gallery, a million things in every branch of Nature and Art, comprehending a Cyclopaedical Synopsis of everything worth seeing and knowing in this curious world's curious economy."
|Barnum's Great American Museum, circa 1858|
Barnum's Great American Museum was located at the corner of Broadway and Ann Street in New York City. Its location at what was essentially the physical junction of upper and working class neighborhoods allowed him to capture patrons from all walks of life, with the help of heretofore unheard-of advertising efforts. The Great American Museum flourished from 1841 until it (and the many caged animals that lived within it) was ravaged by fire, first in 1865 and again in 1868,. At that point Barnum took General Tom and the Bearded Lady on the road and became the traveling carnival showman and promoter par excellence that we know him as today. (Feejee the fake mermaid met a sadder fate. Not sure what happened to the weaving dog or industrious fleas).
|P.T. Barnum, 1860, Mathew Brady Studio|
Here in Pittsburgh, I think Andrew Carnegie mastered that challenge. Yes, Andrew Carnegie, the elfin Scottish multi-millionnaire, shown below at Skibo Castle with his favorite Rough Collie, Laddie.
|Andrew Carnegie and Laddie, Skibo Castle, c. 1914|
I don't know if they ever met but I think P.T. Barnum and Andrew Carnegie had some things in common. Both were men from humble beginnings who created their own fortune and fame. Barnum was born into an established Connecticut merchant family but it was his particular hybrid of business savvy built upon novel schemes and grandiose hype that made him several fortunes. The working class Carnegie family immigrated from Dunfermline Scotland to Allegheny City PA in 1848; in this land of opportunity Andrew's motivation and skill at working the crony capitalist network made him the world's wealthiest man.
These rags-to-riches success stories were of the type that reinforced the evolving paradigms of the American dream and exceptionalism. What these men lacked in formal education they made up for in charisma and entrepreneurial imagination, and they were both masters of promotion (for both their personal images and their pet projects, which were inextricably entwined). I think guys like Barnum and Carnegie personified a certain entrepreneurial and promotional Zeitgeist and represented the best of a young America, full to bursting with energy and ideas and ingenuity and money, so much money that no one dared tell them what they couldn't do.
But above all, both of these men believed in the importance of accessibility to "high culture" for the
|Daguerrotype of Jenny Lind, 1850, Mathew Brady studio (retouched)|
Andrew Carnegie had no impresarios to promote and he didn't seek to augment his personal fortune for fortune's sake. But he, too, had ulterior motives for promoting high culture. Carnegie held dear and wished to promote a personal philosophy of social Darwinism and redemptive philanthropy that he spelled out in a treatise he called the The Gospel of Wealth. In developing this manifesto he was influenced by a family heritage espousing Chartist beliefs for political reform against inherited wealth and position; by the doctrines of social responsibility inherit in the Swedenborgian church he attended in his youth; by the ideas put forth by his intellectual hero English philosopher Herbert Spencer; and by the writings of social critic Matthew Arnold. (I have also wondered how much of Carnegie's philanthropic philosophy might also have been influenced by another contemporary, English writer and artist John Ruskin, who advocated art education for all social classes as a necessity in order to mold individual and social morality and who modeled personal cultural philanthropy. However, while Carnegie's ideas about the obligations of the wealthy and the wisdom of inheritance taxes do echo Ruskin, the latter's critiques of the effects of capitalism and industrial society surely would not have endeared him to Carnegie.).
Carnegie was neither a man of traditional religious faith, nor was he a driven workaholic, so he did not hold with popular contemporary notions that material success was a blessing from God or the result of relentless personal diligence. Carnegie believed that the wealth that had found its way into the hands of a few privileged individuals was created as a result of the well-managed labors of many, and was therefore "the joint product of the community." Accordingly, Carnegie believed it was the duty of privileged individuals to devote themselves to earning masses of money to administer on behalf of the community in which it was earned, for the benefit of those who chose to reach for opportunities and improve their lots in life. The wealthy were agents of progress; their riches not personally theirs but their personal responsibility to distribute for the betterment of society.
Just as his promotion of Jenny Lind gave P.T. Barnum's image a cultural facelift, there is no doubt that Andrew Carnegie's generosity polished his tarnished robber-baron reputation. A relentless optimist whose personal motto was "All is well since all grows better," Andrew Carnegie wanted to be remembered as someone who loved his fellow man. With riches and wisdom to spare, Andrew Carnegie resolved at an early age to spend his life dispensing his advice and money. It is in keeping with his ideals that he thought to better and 'grow' mankind by using his money to provide access to high culture and advances in art, science and technology, with no access barred, for all who chose to avail themselves of the opportunity. That most millwork involved 12 hour days, 6-7 days per week, leaving the average working class laborer scant time or energy to wander the halls of the Carnegie cultural complex was of no concern; Carnegie believed that if motivation for improvement was strong, determination would carry the day.
|1897 Carnegie Institute, original design by Longfellow, Alden & Harlow. Carnegie Museum of Art Collection of Photographs, 1894-1958.|
Building a physically magnificent, eponymously-named museum complex filled with amazing artifacts in Pittsburgh certainly helped deflate personal criticism. Even one of his harshest public critics, the writer Theodore Dreiser, grudgingly wrote upon the opening of the Oakland complex that "The particular manifestation of interest on the part of the public pleased me greatly and somehow qualified, if it did not atone for, in part at least, Mr. Carnegie's indifference to the living welfare of his employees elsewhere." But stage-managing his reputation was not Carnegie's original goal and he was aggrieved that his actions were perceived in a context of philanthropy as atonement. He resented accusations that his philanthropic philosophy was a self-serving promotional device and accompanying discussions about how taking Carnegie's 'tainted' money was a sell-out in the battle between labor and capitol. And in fact, Carnegie's journal entries confirm that he had clearly developed his philanthropic philosophy and resolve as a young man in his 30s, well before labor strikes and lock-outs and violence at Homestead.
Still, it cannot be denied that there was earth-bound personal redemption associated with Carnegie's generosity, which biographer David Nash referenced as a "....talent for cloaking self-interest in larger humantiarian concerns." And there are many people who to this day believe that Andrew Carnegie owed far more to Pittsburgh laborers than grand cultural institutions that the common man had little time to visit, and who feel that those gifts do merely represent attempts to manipulate public opinion. This mindset and a century's worth of multi-generational resentment have influenced how we remember Carnegie in Pittsburgh. Here there is a different feeling about the man's legacy than what one gets in Carnegie's native Dunfermline, where there is a whiff of secular canonization in the air.
To be sure, Dunfermline is dominated by its ancient abbey which houses the bodies of some half-dozen or so Scottish kings and queens and The Bruce. But Carnegie looms large. My family and I wandered all around this former capital of medieval Scotland last summer. We visited Andrew Carnegie's birthplace, which connects to a wonderful biographical museum with a wee bit of a feel of a shrine to it (contrasted with an actual pilgrimage shrine to St. Margaret, located in a cave below a car park on the other side of town). We were warmly greeted there as Pittsburghers on a Carnegie cultural pilgrimage.
|Carnegie Cottage, Dunfermline Scotland|
The Carnegies lived in this well-preserved cottage built circa 1775 at the corner of Moodie Street and Priory Lane, down the hill from the High Street. Young 'Andra' had every expectation of becoming a weaver like his father, who at one point had four working looms in the home. Once a prosperous town at the center of the Fifeshire linen industry to which its fortunes were tied, Dunfermline housed many weavers and their families in humble cottages like this one, which Andrew's father rented from a family member.
William Carnegie's looms would have taken up the whole of the first floor, while the family of four occupied a single upstairs room on the left side of the cottage.
|Working Jacquard handloom, circa early 1800s, on the first floor of the Carnegie cottage.|
It was a hard-scrabble existence. The family lived above constant racket from the looms below, mess from the dampened dirt floor to keep the necessary humidity for the looms to work properly, no electricity or gas or indoor plumbing, and water fetched in buckets from a near-by well (Andrew's ruthless and competitive streak emerged early; he reported that as he was not one to wait his turn to fill the family buckets he earned a local reputation as "an awfu' laddie" for his bucket-queue-bullying ways). The fortunes of this one-industry town collapsed in the 1840s when it lost its industry due to steam-powered looms taking precedence over hand-weaving. The Carnegie family moved twice before leaving Dunfermline for good in 1848.
|Dunfermline Demonstration by Andrew Blair and William Geddes, 1881|
This painting at the birthplace museum by local artists Andrew Blair and William Geddes was commissioned by Carnegie to mark his triumphant return to Dunfermline in 1881, when he laid the foundation stone for the first of an eventual 2811 Free Carnegie Libraries (note that when this happened, the reputation-damaging scandals associated with the Homestead Strike were 11 years in the future). The throngs lining the streets and buildings decorated with flags and bunting welcome Carnegie (in the first carriage, doffing his hat to the crowd) and his formidable mother, Margaret.
Carnegie established the Dunfermline Trust in 1903 to "bring into the monotonous lives of the toiling masses of Dunfermline more of sweetness and light; to give to them--especially the young--some charm, some happiness, some elevating conditions of life...." Such a legacy of "sweetness and light" means Carnegie's presence dominates even the town's medieval history. The Dunfermline Trust also allowed Carnegie to fund maintenance for a local park that he purchased, one whose history highlights his disdain of privileged access. This park, officially known as Pittencrieff Glen but referred to locally as The Glen, is situated next to Dunfermline Abbey with an entrance across from the first Carnegie home on Moodie Street. When young 'Andra' lived
|Looking through the gates of Pittencrief Park as a young Andrew Carnegie might have done.|
Thus were the seeds of revenge sown, for remembering the lovely park "as near to paradise" Carnegie was delighted to purchase Pittencrieff from the financially-challenged Hunt family...and then turn the gates wide open to the public! It remains today a beautifully-maintained public oasis in the center of town, with winding paths and friendly squirrels keeping company with historical sites like the reputed ruins of Malcom Canmore's 11th century tower and William Wallace's Well.
|Photos from Pittencrieff Park, June 2013 visit|
The ties between Dunfermline and Pittsburgh are unusually strong. When Carnegie became Laird of Pittencrieff, he inherited a 17th century mansion on the grounds that had been the childhood home of General John Forbes. This same General Forbes is credited with turning the tide of American history in favor of British forces during the Seven Years War; his armies defeated the French, who burned and abandoned their Fort Duquesne at the fork of the Belle Riviere in 1758, never to return. The modern city of Pittsburgh thus owes as much to Forbes as it does to Carnegie, and it's a strange twist of fate that unites them in this way.
We were thrilled to be escorted upstairs in the mansion, now a visitor's center, to see where a young Forbes had carved his name into the glass of an attic window.
|Pittencrieff House, home of General John Forbes|
We were also tickled to stumble upon a historical marker outside the mansion that was donated to the people of Dunfermline in 2012 by the Allegheny Conference of Pittsburgh to mark Forbes' accomplishments.
|Forbes Trail marker in Dunfermline|
|Forbes Trail marker at Fort Ligonier|
|Richard Reginald Goulden's bronze statue of Andrew Carnegie, 1914, Pittencrieff Park, Dunfermline|
Poor Andra! It's hardly a dignified way to greet visitors. It must be said, however, that the condition of this statue as reflective of Carnegie's lasting reputation would resonate with more than a few Pittsburghers. With its inspiring birthplace museum and myriad sites named for him (many of which he funded), there is evident reverence for the hometown-boy-made-good and respect for Carnegie's local and international charitable reputation in Dunfermline.
That reverence isn't so apparent in Pittsburgh, where Carnegie made his fortune on the backs of our great-grandfathers (sometimes breaking them in the process). To be sure, Pittsburghers flock to the Carnegie libraries and cultural complex, and generations have been educated at the Carnegie Technical Schools (now Carnegie-Mellon University and far removed from its original mission as a vocational training school for the sons and daughters of working-class Pittsburghers). And the citizens of outlying suburbs Mansfield and Chartiers did name their consolidated boroughs in Carnegie's honor in 1892, leading him to note that "Life would not be worth living to me if I felt the the people in and around Pittsburgh did not, at least, in some degree, reciprocate the affection which I have for them...."
Mmm, affection, yes. But Pittsburghers display that affection for Carnegie the way we might for an irascible, albeit generous, uncle who never quite gets what a pain in the ass he can be. Pittsburghers get their digs in.
For instance, that Duck that famously floated on Pittsburgh's Ohio and Allegheny rivers last summer?
|Florentijn Hofman's Duck debuts on the Allegheny River, September 27 2013|
Yeah, not an original concept: we floated Andrew Carnegie's head down the Allegheny River a couple years earlier during the Three Rivers Arts Festival.
|Stephen Antonson's 20-foot inflatable sculpture of Andrew Carnegie on the Allegheny River, 2010 Three Rivers Art Festival. Source: WSJ.|
That other Pittsburgh Andrew-from-a-poor-family-who-made-good, artist Andy Warhol, famously took on Carnegie as a silk-screen subject in 1981 when the Carnegie Museum of Art commissioned a portrait of its founder and benefactor. These large Warhol works hang in all their pop-art glory, prominently displayed as founder's portraits for the modern era.
|Andy's Andrew, 1981. Image from postcard, author's collection.|
|Andy Warhol's Andrew Carnegie acrylic and silkscreen on canvas, 1981.|
But the ultimate irreverent portrayal of Andrew Carnegie has to be this mural downtown Pittsburgh, right above the last existing Wiener World at the 600 block of Smithfield Street on Strawberry Way.
Entitled Two Andys, the mural by Pittsburgh artists Sarah Zeffiro and Tom Mosser was commissioned by The Sprout Fund in 2005 as part of a series aimed at revitalizing shabby downtown exteriors with public art. This mural commemorates Pittsburgh's two white-haired Andrews, men who drastically changed the appearance of the worlds they inhabited. The Andys are shown primping in a beauty shop, their white tresses wrapped around curlers and positioned beneath hair dryers. Our man Carnegie has his hands soaking in manicure liquid (sadly not apparent from my street-level photo). It's impossible not to think about the Carnegie who never dirtied his hands during labor disputes, preferring to let subordinates handle the gritty details...and fun to imagine this as a commentary on Carnegie softening up his public image. Pittsburgh architectural scholar Dr. Franklin Toker immortalized the mural as representative of the dynamic nature and compelling history of our urban environment when he used it as the cover of his fabulous book Pittsburgh: A New Portrait.
We do pay serious homage to Carnegie in Pittsburgh, of course, but such examples are generally discrete and you've got to look for them. For instance, there are Andrew Carnegie portraits and busts aplenty at the local libraries, where his steely-eyed gaze follows stack-browsing patrons. But it must be admitted that such images are typically ignored by patrons.
There's a strategically-placed official state marker that commemorates his largesse outside of the Oakland Carnegie Library that does get a bit more attention.
Even the colossal bronze statue of Carnegie that sits in the Carnegie Music Hall Foyer is only visible from an elegantly velvet-roped distance. It's off-limits unless there is a public event going on to allow the average person access to this spectacular room, with its marble floor and 28 columns crowned by a 45-foot high ceiling that's encrusted with sculptured plaster and gold leaf. Etched around the bottom of the statue is Carnegie's motto: "All grows well since all grows better." It is indeed a throne room fit for the Victorian-era King of Industry. PT Barnum would have approved of the presentation, I think (and probably charged for even this distant view).
|The marble-columned Carnegie Music Hall Foyer, built 1907. |
|John Massey Rhind's 1907 seated bronze statue of Andrew Carnegie holding court in the 60x135 foot Music Hall foyer.|
|Théobald Chartran's portrait of Andrew Carnegie, 1895. Carnegie Museum of Art website.|
A stealth portrayal of Andrew Carnegie greets patrons who know where to look when at his museum.
Climb Staircase Hall to see John White Alexander's 3-story mural cycle entitled The Crowning of Labor, and you will spy a certain white-haired Black Knight of Labor floating above the romanticized working classes ascending from the depths of the hellish mills to the spiritual heights of pristine arts and sciences.
In this painting, called The Crowning of Pittsburgh, the hero floats heavenward amidst his crimson cape of battle to the blaring of trumpets by lovely winged creatures suspended above the industrial smoke. He is about to be crowned with a wreath by a topless art-nouveau winged beauty.
If we think of the museum-library-concert hall complex as the high temple of Carnegie's social gospel, then it's hardly a stretch to see Andrew Carnegie portrayed here as its noble Messiah-figure being crowned and Assumed into heaven as a reward for his accomplishments on earth. His expression indicates a certain smug self-satisfaction; such is his due, after all.
John White Alexander worked on his mural cycle from 1904 to 1915 but at his death this enormous work remained unfinished. The noble workers are thus still marching up the stairs to reach the cultural heights, with no end in sight, and Andrew Carnegie never does get a throne.
A more traditional portrayal of Carnegie can be found at the Heinz History Center, where a life-sized figure sculpted by Life Formations of Ohio greets visitors in the Tradition of Innovations exhibit. If you aren't compelled to run from its Uncanny Valley evocation, you can press a button and listen to an actual recording of the diminutive Scotsman read from his Gospel of Wealth.
And if you're walking downtown and chance to look up when you pass the 7-Eleven on Seventh Street, you'll see Andra staring down at you from the 18-story Midtown Towers. Once the tallest building in the city, the former Kennan Building at the corner of Seventh and Liberty is decorated with sculpted medallion portraits of luminaries such as Carnegie, George Washington, William Penn and Teddy Roosevelt and various long-gone local politicians. The building has a storied history all its own that's worth investigating.
|Carnegie Lake Postcard, 1920s|
Oh, and Andrew Carnegie had a Pittsburgh lake named for him. In the 1870s a halfway station was constructed in East Liberty as part of the municipal water system to hold water pumped from the Allegheny River to the Highland Park reservoir. Technological innovations rendered the need for this secondary reservoir obsolete, so in 1892 Carnegie partially financed the creation of Lake Carnegie for public recreation in the new Highland Park. For several decades this picturesque site was used for boating, fishing, swimming and ice skating.
The popular Highland Park swimming pool was carved out of the lake in 1932. What remains of the lake today is mostly stagnant and decorated with piles of goose poop...not a very pleasant place to visit, though once upon a time it was a very busy recreational site.
Carnegie Lake then:
|Lake Carnegie 1937. Pgh City Photographer Collection, Archives Service Ctr, Univ of Pittsburgh|
Carnegie Lake now:
Carnegie's presence in Pittsburgh is thus mostly represented by the cultural institutions and the remains of the industrial complex he created, with a few other random portrayals tossed in. There is no systematic attempt at memorialization here, and certainly no lovingly-maintained house museums like Frick's Clayton or the Carnegie birthplace museum in Dunfermline. That's despite Carnegie having had four different homes in Pittsburgh.
|House identified as Carnegie Rebecca Street home by PBS biography|
These two images are of buildings purported to be the Rebecca Street house of the Carnegie family in Allegheny City. The one above has been identified as by PBS biography. The one to the right is identified as such from the March 30 1913 edition of the Pittsburgh Gazette Times. Both clippings are from the Oakland Carnegie Library files on Carnegie's life.
Upon returning to Pittsburgh in 1860 at the age of 24, Andrew Carnegie moved his mother and brother to a rented house downtown at 10 Hancock Street (soon renamed Eighth Street). They lived there for less than a year, finding its proximity to industrial pollution overwhelming.
Carnegie's business interests began to take him out of Pittsburgh for extended periods. By 1867 he had relocated to New York City, turning over Fairfield to brother Tom and his growing family. When visiting Pittsburgh, Carnegie would lodge at the Union Depot Hotel adjacent to Union Station downtown.
|Burning of Union Depot & Station, |
Harper's Weekly August 11 1877,
Thus it came to pass that while Pittsburgh has cultural institutions that represent his ideals, we have nothing representative of Carnegie's personal life to visit (unless one counts the two window dormers transplanted from his New York Fifth Avenue home, which adorn the entrance of Carnegie Museum's Heinz Architectural Center).
And I suppose Carnegie wanted it this way. He chose to craft his own image and legacy based on ideals deeply rooted in his own background and experiences. While he was hardly perfectly principled, he chose to set an example by practicing what he preached. He tried to dispense his fortune during his lifetime beginning with the cities to which he felt he owed the most: Dunfermline and Pittsburgh. Dunfermline was the city of his youth, a place "as near to paradise" as his romantic heart could imagine. Pittsburgh was more than an ocean removed from such ideals; it was the gritty city of adults, the place where he would become a man and earn his fortune. Had heart-burial been in vogue during the Edwardian era, Carnegie's heart might have been tucked into a casket in Dunfermline alongside the body of The Bruce (whose own heart was buried at Melrose Abbey a few hours away), and perhaps his backbone would have been interred in Pittsburgh. As it stands, neither place cherishes Carnegie's mortal remains; he was laid to rest at the prestigious Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in New York.
What we have instead is his abiding belief made manifest: art and culture should be accessible to all comers and not remain the sole domain of society's self-proclaimed elite. While I don't know how much Carnegie would have relished seeing his floating head on the Allegheny or pop portrayals of his likeness, I can imagine him harboring a certain wry fascination with it all. And I think he'd have embraced Occupy Facebook With Art. Like many of his contemporaries, Carnegie was not particularly articulate in describing how individual artworks moved him, but he nurtured an appreciation for culture both ancient and modern and desired that others should have the opportunity to do so as well. So, sure, I can see Andra posting a few favorite paintings on his Facebook account every now and again. We could do far worse than to emulate his spirit of accessibility and appreciation for art and cultrue. And as PT Barnum might say, why not take every opportunity to enjoy "everything worth seeing and knowing in this curious world's curious economy"?
Sources and Further Reading
Andrew Carnegie Birthplace Museum Guide Book: Birthplace of Modern Philanthropy. Dunfermline Scotland: Andrew Carnegie Birthplace Museum.
"Andrew Carnegie: The Richest Man in the World." The American Experience. PBS. Boston, MA, 1997. Television.
Bear, David. "Great Scot: Dunfermline remembers native son Andrew Carnegie." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. June 20 1999.
Carnegie, Andrew. My Own Story. Reprinted for The Carnegie Dunfermline Trust by Houghton Mifflin Company. 1920, 2012.
"Carnegie Started as a Bobbin Boy." New York Times Obituary. August 12, 1919.
Crawford, Lynn. "The Legacy of The Laird of Pittencrieff." Pittsburgh Family Magazine of The Pittsburgh Press. July 19, 1981.
Dietrich, William S., II. "Andrew Carnegie: Black white. He took some and gave more." Pittsburgh Quarterly. Summer 2007.
Gangewere, Robert. Palace of Culture: Andrew Carnegie's Museums and Library in Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. 2011.
Gray, Christopher. "Andrew Carnegie Was Here." New York Times. March 1, 2012.
Holland, WJ. "The Carnegie Museum." The Popular Science Monthly. Vol 59. May 1901.
Kunhardt, Philip B., Jr., Philip B. Kunhardt III, Peter Kunhardt. P.T. Barnum American's Greatest Showman. New York: Albert A. Knopf. 1995.
Laskin, David. "Andrew Carnegie's Pittsburgh: Where a Tycoon Made it Just to Give It Away." New York Times. October 21, 2007
Miller, Donald. "A link to the past: The drive to restore Andrew Carnegie's summer house." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. December 5, 1990.
Miller, Donald. "The Taste of Andrew Carnegie." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. May 16 1991.
"Mrs. Andrew Carnegie Dies in New York, Aged 89." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Obituary. June 25, 1946.
Nasaw, David. Andrew Carnegie. Penguin Books. 2006.
Toker, Franklin. Pittsburgh: A New Portrait. University of Pittsburgh Press. 2009.